Center For Indigenous Psychology (Pusat Pengembangan Psikologi Islam) diasuh oleh: Prof. DR Achmad Mubarok MA, Guru Besar Psikologi Islam UI, UIN Jakarta, UIA

Sunday, November 19, 2006

Keadilan Sebagai Kaidah Hukum Alam
at 10:29 PM 
Keadilan adalah kata jadian dari kata adil yang terambil dari bahasa Arab ‘adala - ‘adl. Dalam bahasa Arab kata ‘adl mengandung arti “sama”, terutama dalam hal yang bersifat immateriil. Dalam kamus Bahasa Indonesia, kata adil diartikan sebagai (a) tidak berat sebelah/tidak memihak, (b) berpihak kepada kebenaran, dan (c) sepatutnya/tidak sewenang-wenang. Jadi dibalik kata adil terkandung arti memperlakukan secara sama, tidak berpihak kecuali atas dasar prinsip kebenaran dan kepatutan, atau seperti yang disebut dalam ungkapan bahasa Arab, wadl‘u assyai’ fi mahallihi, artinya menempatkan sesuatu pada tempatnya. Kata adil mengisyaratkan adanya dua pihak atau lebih yang harus diperlakukan secara “sama”.

Dalam al Qur’an. Keadilan disebut dengan kata al ‘adl, al qisth dan al mizan. Kata al qisth mengandung arti “bagian” yang wajar dan patut, sehingga pengertian sama tidak harus persis sama, tetapi bisa beda bentuk asal substansinya sama. Sedangkan kata al mizan mengandung arti seimbang atau timbangan, merujuk pengertian bahwa keadilan itu mendatangkan harmoni (tidak jomplang) karena segala sesuatu diperlakukan atau ditempatkan sesuai dengan semestinya. Alam tata surya misalnya, diciptakan Tuhan dengan mengetrapkan prinsip keseimbangan, wassama a rafa‘aha wa wadla‘a al mizan (Q/55:7). Dengan keseimbangan itu maka alam berjalan harmoni, siang, malam, kemarau, musim hujan, musim panas, musim dingin, gerhana, yang dengan itu manusia bisa menikmati keteraturan keseimbangan itu dengan menghitung jam, bulan, tahun, cuaca, arah angin dan sebagainya. Dengan keseimbangan (mizan) alam ini , manusia kemudian menyadari tentang ozon, efek rumah kaca dan sebagainya.

Demikian juga keseimbangan yang ada pada tata bumi, struktur tanah, resapan air, habitat makhluk hidup, kesemuanya diletakkan dalam sistem keadilan, yakni sistem yang menempatkan seluruh makhluk dalam satu siklus dimana kesemuanya diperlakukan secara “sama”, proporsional dan sepantasnya. Semua makhluk hidup sampai yang sekecil-kecilnya disediakan rizkinya oleh sistem tersebut. Sistem keadilan dan harmoni itu membuat semua makhluk memiliki makna atas kehadirannya. Kotoran manusia yang oleh manusia dipandang najis, menjijikkan dan membahayakan kesehatannya, ternyata ia sangat bermakna bagi ikan gurame di kolam, yang dengan menu najis itu ikan gurame menjadi gemuk. Kehadiran ikan gurame yang gemuk selanjutnya menjadi sangat bermakna bagi manusia, karena dibutuhkan gizinya.

Allah menciptakan dan mengelola alam ini dengan keadilan sebagai sunnatullah, maka Allahpun mengetrapkan prinsip keadilan ini pada kehidupan manusia. Hukum sunnatullah itu bersifat pasti dan tidak bisa diganti, oleh karena itu siapapun yang berlaku adil maka dialah yang berhak menerima buahnya berupa kehidupan yang harmoni, sebaliknya siapapun yang menyimpang dari prinsip keadilan (zalim) ia akan memetik buahnya berupa ketidak harmonisan.

Sunnatullah berlaku pada alam, pada tubuh manusia, pada kehidupan indifidu manusia, pada kehidupan keluarga, kehidupan masyarakat, kehidupan berbangsa dan bernegara. Oleh karena itu ada perintah untuk berlaku adil meski kepada diri sendiri, berlaku adil kepada orang yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya dan ada juga keharusan menegakkan keadilan sosial.
posted by : Mubarok institute

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