Center For Indigenous Psychology (Pusat Pengembangan Psikologi Islam) diasuh oleh: Prof. DR Achmad Mubarok MA, Guru Besar Psikologi Islam UI, UIN Jakarta, UIA

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Kritik Terhadap Teori Psikologi Barat
at 7:40 PM 
Sebagaimana telah diketahui bahwa suatu teori diciptakan oleh penciptanya atas dasar penemuan-penemuan pada zaman tertentu oleh ilmuan yang hidup dalam lingkungan tertentu. Latar belakang kehidupan seorang ilmuwan sering mempengaruhi teori-teori yang diciptakannya. Oleh karena itu tidak mengherankan jika konsepsi manusia dirumuskan secara berbeda oleh teori yang berbeda . Kritikan terhadap teori lama dan munculnya teori baru dalam bidang keilmuan adalah merupakan satu keniscayaan.

Kritik yang cukup mendasar misalnya ditujukan kepada teori Psikoanalisa dan Behaviourisme. Kedua teori ini tidak menghargai manusia sebagai manusia. Tetapi makhluk yang dikendalikan oleh kekuatan luar. teori Psikoanalisa menganggap manusia tidak memiliki kebebasan, karena dikendalikan oleh keinginan dan dorongan-dorongan bawah sadarnya. Seluruh tingkah laku manusia hanya berpusat pada motif Eros dan Thanatos, motif kehidupan dan motif kematian. Jiwa manusia sebagai eksistensi manusia yang terhormat dan mulia justru tidak ada dalam konsef Freud.

Behaviourisme juga tidak menghargai manusia sebagai makhluk yang terhormat dan mulia, karena menurut teori ini manusia dipandang sebagai makhluk yang lemah dalam menghadapi lingkungan. Ia dibentuk begitu saja oleh lingkungan tanpa sanggup mengubahnya. Manusia dinilai tidak memiliki kebebasan karena ia tunduk dibawah hukum S-R (Stimulus-Respons), yakni hanya bergerak jika ada rangsangan. Manusia dipandang hanya sebagai obyek, bukan subyek. Ia adalah makhluk yang reaktif, mekanistik, dan determinitik.

Semua aliran psikologi barat memusatkan perhatiannya pada tingkah laku lahir manusia sebagai gejala jiwanya, sedangkan jiwa yang justru menjadi judul ilmu tersebut yaitu ilmu jiwa atau ‘ilm an-nafs tidak dipelajari. Unsur rohaniah manusia dalam kaitannya dengan kesehatan mental juga tidak diperhatikan dalam teori-teori tersebut.
Menurut Prof. Dr. Hasan Langgulung, teori-teori psikologi yang dicipta oleh beberapa tokoh seperti Freud, Watson dan lain-lainnya tidak terlepas dari pengaruh latar belakang kehidupan mereka.
posted by : Mubarok institute

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Anonymous sisca nurul fadila said.. :

saya seorang mahasiswa pasca sarjana pendidikan anak usia dini, saat ini "kiblat" pendidikan terutama PAUD semua munuju ke ilmuwan barat. sedangkan sudah banyak diketahui bahwa ilmuwan barat dalam menciptakan teori di latar belakangi oleh masa lalunya yang mengalami "penyimpangan"..
bisakah saya meminta referensi buku/web yang membahas tentang pendidikan dari ilmuwan timur?karena saya minim referensi..terima kasih Prof..

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