Center For Indigenous Psychology (Pusat Pengembangan Psikologi Islam) diasuh oleh: Prof. DR Achmad Mubarok MA, Guru Besar Psikologi Islam UI, UIN Jakarta, UIA

Monday, October 18, 2010

Manusia Menurut Teori Psikologi Humanistik
at 8:41 PM 
Jika teori psikoanalisa dan behaviourisme kurang menghargai manusia, karena dalam psikoanalisa, manusia dipandang hanya melayani keinginan bawah sadarnya, behaviourisme memandang manusia yang takluk kepada lingkungan, maka Psikologi humanistik memandang manusia sebagai eksistensi yang positif dan menentukan. Manusia dipandang sebagai makhluk yang unik yang memiliki cinta, kreativitas, nilai, dan makna serta pertumbuhan pribadi.

Pusat perhatian teori humanistik, adalah pada makna kehidupan, dan masalah ini dalam psikologi humanistik disebut sebagai Homo Ludens, yaitu manusia yang mengerti makna kehidupan.
Menurut Teori Psikologi humanistik ini, setiap manusia hidup dalam dunia pengalaman yang bersifat pribadi (unik), dan kehidupannya berpusat pada dirinya itu. Perilaku manusia bukan dikendalikan oleh keinginan bawah sadarnya (seperti teori psikoanalisa), bukan pula tunduk pada lingkungannya (seperti teori behaviourisme), tetapi berpusat pada konsep diri, yaitu pandangan atau persepsi orang terhadap dirinya yang bisa berubah-ubah dan fleksibel sesuai dengan pengalamannya dengan orang lain. Seorang penjahat yang merasa hebat karena berani nekad dalam perbuatan jahatnya misalnya, karena pengalamannya dengan jagoan lain yang lebih hebat tetapi baik perilakunya, dapat saja ia menemukan makna kehidupan, dan kemudian memiliki konsep diri bahwa ia pasti dapat mengubah dirinya menjadi orang baik.

Psikologi humanistik memandang positif manusia. Menurut teori ini, manusia selalu berusaha untuk mempertahankan dan meningkatkan kualitas dirinya. Manusia juga ingin selalu mengaktualisasikan dirinya dalam kehidupan yang bermakna. Setiap individu bereaksi terhadap situasi yang dihadapinya (stimuli) sesuai dengan konsep diri yang dimilikinya, dan dunia dimana ia hidup. Kecenderungan batiniah manusia selalu menuju kesehatan dan keutuhan diri. Jadi, dalam keadaan normal, manusia cenderung berperilaku rasional dan membangun (konsruktif). Ia juga cenderung memilih jalan (pekerjaan, karier atau jalan hidup) yang mendukung pengembangan dan aktualisasi dirinya.

Dalam kehidupan keseharian, terkadang kita jumpai seseorang gadis dari keluarga kaya, tapi justru memilih menjadi guru SD di kampung terpencil, seorang mahasiswa yang cerdas tapi justru aktif dalam kegiatan sosial di daerah kumuh sampai studinya tertinggal oleh kawan-kawannya yang kurang cerdas, seorang pengusaha sukses yang kemudian lebih senang menjadi da’i dan sebagainya. Fenomena itu dipandang positif oleh teori Humanistik, apa yang mungkin dipandang tak lebih sekadar mengikuti dorongan libido oleh teori psikoanalisa, atau sekadar terbawa arus oleh teori behaviourisme.
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