Center For Indigenous Psychology (Pusat Pengembangan Psikologi Islam) diasuh oleh: Prof. DR Achmad Mubarok MA, Guru Besar Psikologi Islam UI, UIN Jakarta, UIA

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Manusia Menurut Teori Psikologi Kognitif
at 8:03 PM 
Jika behaviorurisme memandang manusia sebagai makhluk yang bersifat pasif terhadap lingkungan, maka psikologi kognitif menempatkan manusia sebagai makhluk yang bereaksi secara aktif terhadap lingkungan, yakni dengan cara berpikir. Manusia berusaha memahami lingkungan yang dihadapinya dan meresponnya dengan pikiran yang dimilikinya. Oleh karena itu, maka manusia menurut teori kognitif ini disebut sebagai Homo Sapiens, yakni manusia yang berpikir.

Pusat perhatian teori kognitif adalah bagaimana manusia memberi makna kepada stimuli. Orang yang selalu ditakut-takuti, misalnya tidak mesti jadi penakut seperti yang dikatakan dalam teori behaviorurisme tetapi boleh jadi ia berpikir bahwa sesuatu yang menakutkan itu harus dilawan. Iapun mungkin berpikir bahwa ia ingin membalik keadaan yaitu justru ingin membuat takut kepada orang yang suka menakut-nakuti.

Jadi, menurut teori ini, manusia tidak secara otomatis memberikan respon kepada stimuli, tidak otomatis takut jika ditakut-takuti, tidak otomatis senang jika ada orang tersenyum kepadanya, tidak otomatis patuh jika atasan menyuruhnya, tapi ia aktif menafsirkan stimuli yang dihadapinya. Ia berpikir apakah orang yang menakut-nakuti itu memang orangnya kuat, apakah senyuman itu senyuman kasih sayang atau senyuman gombal, apakah perintah atasan itu pantas dikerjakan atau tidak, dan sebagainya. Jadi, secara psikologi manusia adalah organisme yang aktif menafsirkan, bahkan mendistorsi lingkungan.

Jika seseorang mendengar suara “ana”, mungkin saja ia menafsirkannya dengan ada (bahasa jawa), atau aku (bahasa aarab), atau anak (dialek semarang), atau nama Kepala SD Negeri 3 (Bu Anna). Jika anda melihat tulisan II, boleh jadi anda menafsirkannya dengan huruf I, atau dua romawi, atau dua tiang yang berdiri sejajar. Dalam pandangan teori kognitif, manusialah yang memberi makna terhadap stimuli, bukan stimuli itu sendiri. Words don’t mean, people mean, “kata-kata tak mempunyai arti apa-apa, manusialah yang member arti”,demikian kata ahli komunikasi.

Setiap awal semester, di berbagai kampus Universitas dipasang pengumuman, bahwa batas akhir registrasi adalah tanggal 19 September, misalnya, lewat tanggal tersebut mahasiswa dinyatakan telah mengundurkan diri. Pengunduran itu tidak otomatis direspon oleh seluruh mahasiswa dengan langsung membayar uang kuliah, boleh jadi terjadi banyak reaksi karena penafsiran yang berbeda, misalnya:
1. Ach, itu kan pengumuman rutin, dari dulu juga begitu,
2. Cepat bayar yuk, dari pada kena DO nanti kita malu,
3. Kalau terlambat Cuma seminggu saya kira tidak apa-apa,
4. Biarin sajalah, yang penting sebelum ujian kita bayar,
5. Bagaimana sih rektor kita, katanya universitas kita membela kaum dhu’afa, terlambat saja kita di DO, kita kan orang miskin, untung masih mau kuliah, dan sebagainya.

Jadi, dalam mereaksi terhadap stimuli, manusia berpikir dan berusaha menemukan jati dirinya. Teori Kognitif memang telah menempatkan kembali manusia sebagai makhluk yang berjiwa, yang bukan hanya berpikir, tetapi juga berusaha menemukan identitas dirinya (bandingkan dengan teori behaviourisme).
posted by : Mubarok institute

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