Center For Indigenous Psychology (Pusat Pengembangan Psikologi Islam) diasuh oleh: Prof. DR Achmad Mubarok MA, Guru Besar Psikologi Islam UI, UIN Jakarta, UIA

Sunday, October 24, 2010

hubungan pikiran dan perasaan dengan Qalb dan hati nurani
at 7:58 PM 
Dalam bahasa Arab, kata al-qalbu diucapkan untuk menyebut jantung, bukan hati, sementara untuk hati disebut al-kabid. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, yang dimaksud dengan qalbu adalah hati, baik dalam arti maknawi maupun fisik (liver). Secara lughawi, qalbu artinya bolak-balik, merujuk pada sifat hati manusia yang tidak konsisten atau bolak-balik (summiyat al-qalbu qalban litaqallubihi).

Dalam al-Qur’an, kata al-qalbu dan qulub digunakan untuk menyebut ruh (QS. 33 : 10), alat untuk memahami (QS. 7 : 179), keberanian (QS. 3 : 126) dan alat ketakutan (QS. 33 : 26).
Dalam perspektif psikologi, qalbun atau kalbu atau hati adalah bagaikan kamar kecil di dalam ruang nafs yang luas. Berbeda dengan nafs yang hanya menampung hal-hal yang sudah tidah disadari, maka memori qalb atau hati menampung hal-hal yang sepenuhnya disadari. Oleh karena itu, apa yang harus dipertanggungjawabkan manusia dihadapan Tuhan-nya adalah dalam hal perbuatan yang didasari oleh hati (QS. 2 : 225) bukan yang berada di dalam memori nafs. Qalbu berhubungan erat denga aktivitas berpikir yang dilakukan oleh akal, sementara nafs lebih berhubungan dengan perasaan.
Hati memang memiliki karakter tidak konsisten (taqallub) berubah-ubah, terkadang bergejolak, terkadang lembut, terkadang benci, lain kali terhanyut oleh perasaan cinta, terkadang merasa yakin, tap esoknya ragu-ragu. Mesti demikian ia tetap sadar terhadap apa yang diputuskannya. Karena sifatnya yang potensial untuk berubah itulah maka menurut al-qur’an, hati dapat diuji (QS. 49 : 3), dapat diperlonggar dan dipersempit (QS. 6 : 125) dan bahkan bisa ditutup rapat (QS. 2 : 7).

B.3. Tentang Nurani
Perasaan manusia yang paling mendalam biasanya disebut dengan kata hati, atau hati nurani. Nurani berasal dari kata Arab nur (nuraniyyun) yang artinya cahaya. Jadi hati nurani dapat disebut sebagai cahaya hati, atau lubuk hati yang terdalam.
Dalam al-Qur’an, nurani atau kata hati disebut dengan kata bashirah yang dapat diterjemahkan dalam pandangan mata hati (QS. 75 : 15) sebagai lawan dari pandangan mata. Jika qalbu yang memiliki karakter tidak konsisten itu masih dapat menipu diri dan pura-pura tidak tahu, maka nurani tetap jujur dan peka. Nurani yang terpelihara, ibarat cermin yang bersih, yang dapat menampakan wajah apa adanya. Orang yang sering melakukan kejahatan, nuraninya bagaikan cermin yang tersiram cairan hitam sehingga hanya sedikit saja yang menampakan wajah asli pemiliknya, sedangkan orang yang melakukan kejahatan secara terbuka sebagaimana ia melakukan kebaikan (mencampur adukan kebaikan dan kejahatan) cermin nuranina retak sehingga tdak mampu menampakan wajah pemiliknya seperti apa adanya. Jadi, jika nafs digambarkan seperti ruang yang luas di dalam diri manusia, dan qalbu merupakan kamar kecil di dalam ruang itu, amak nurani merupakan kotak kecil yang tersembunyi secara rapih dan kuat di dalam kamar qalbu.
posted by : Mubarok institute

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